Prof Carol Cardno

Professor
Postgraduate
Location: Building 115, Room 2024

Qualifications

DipTchg TTC NZ, TTC Punjab, BA Punjab, MEdAdmin Massey, PhD Auckland, FNZEAS, FCCEAM

Professional memberships

Fellow of the New Zealand Educational Administration Society (FNZEAS)
Fellow of the Commonwealth Council for Educational Administration and Management (FCCEAM)
Member of the New Zealand Association for Research in Education
Member of the Australian Association for Research in Education
Member of the New Zealand Educational Leadership and Administration Society
Member of the British Educational Leadership Management and Administration Society
Member of the American Evaluation Association
Member of the Higher Education Research and Development Society of Australasia

Profile

Carol Cardno is Professor of Educational Leadership and Management in the Department of Education at Unitec Institute of Technology, Auckland, New Zealand. She has a wide experience of teaching in primary, secondary and tertiary sectors, has also held several school management positions and was principal of Waitakere College before establishing an Educational Management Centre at Unitec in 1991. She is the author of Collaborative Management in New Zealand Schools (1990) and Action Research – A Developmental Approach (2003). She has also co-edited a book with David Middlewood: Managing Teacher Appraisal and Performance (2001), and has written two books on Effective Performance Appraisal with Eileen Piggot-Irvine (1997 and 2005). Her latest book: Managing Effective Relationships in Education was published by Sage in March 2012. Several papers of hers have been published in international journals on topics related to her research interests which are staff appraisal and professional development, collaborative management, leadership development, organisational learning and dilemma management. Carol has been asked to present keynote addresses at international conferences most recently in South Africa, Australia and Cyprus. In 2007 she was awarded the Queen’s Service Order for services to educational administration and management in New Zealand.

Graduate supervision of completed theses/dissertations

Doctoral theses

Doctoral theses supervised by Carol Cardno as Principal Supervisor

Bennett, Paul (2017). Teacher coaching in Aotearoa New Zealand secondary schools : an exploratory study (Doctor of Philosophy)
Dunham, Nicola (2016). The academic identity of students in early childhood field-based initial teacher education (Doctor of Philosophy)
Marshall, Steven (2015). From industry professional to academic leader : identity migration in New Zealand polytechnics (Doctor of Philosophy)

Doctoral theses supervised by Carol Cardno as Associate Supervisor

Nguyet, Dang Thi Anh (2009). The historical development of Vietnam National University, Hanoi from a Bourdieusian perspective (Doctor of Philosophy)

Masters theses or dissertations

Masters theses or dissertations supervised by Carol Cardno as Principal Supervisor

Demi, Markus (2017). The nature of leadership dilemmas in technical vocational education and training in Papua New Guinea (Master of Educational Leadership and Management)
Tolmie, Emma (2016). Implementing personalised learning in New Zealand primary schools Innovative Learning Environments (Master of Educational Leadership and Management)
Williams, Rachel (2016). Technology innovations that support technology enhanced teaching and learning and their evaluation in two Auckland secondary schools (Master of Educational Leadership and Management)
Ali, Shirleen Aziza (2016). Exploring the nature of leadership development of middle level professional leaders in New Zealand polytechnics (Master of Educational Leadership and Management)
Janes (née Dobson), Claire (2016). The nature and practice of goal setting in teacher appraisal within primary schools (Master of Educational Leadership and Management)
Tetzlaff, Keith (2016). The nature, leadership and development of senior leadership teams in New Zealand primary schools (Master of Educational Leadership and Management)
Wood, Chris (2015). Teaching as inquiry : form, purpose and application in New Zealand secondary schools (Master of Educational Leadership and Management)
Whipp, Keir (2015). Evaluating the implementation of an e-learning innovation in a South Auckland secondary school (Master of Educational Leadership and Management)
Govender, Kamaseelan (2015). Communication between the New Zealand Qualifications Authority and secondary schools - effective or not? (Master of Educational Leadership and Management)
Baker, Karen (2014). Investigating the initiative of students bringing their own technology devices into New Zealand secondary schools (Master of Educational Leadership and Management)
Anderson, Norma Rosales (2014). Managing quality in a wananga setting : two sides of the same coin (Master of Educational Leadership and Management)
Handjani, Manjula (2014). Managing diversity to achieve ethnic inclusion in multi-ethnic secondary schools (Master of Educational Leadership and Management)
Dhaliwal, Manpreet (2013). Teacher perceptions and management of challenging student behaviours in primary school classrooms (Master of Education)
Beach, Aroha (2013). Understanding choices in the grouping of children within early childhood education : an Auckland based study of same-age / multi-age grouping arrangements (Master of Education)
Watson, Neil (2013). Financial decision making in four New Zealand secondary schools (Master of Educational Leadership and Management)
Allen, Linda (2012). Engaging in sustainable collaborative professional learning : the case of a West Auckland school cluster initiative (Master of Educational Leadership and Management)
Bassett, Martin (2012). Developing middle level leaders in New Zealand secondary schools (Master of Educational Leadership and Management)
Robson, Joanne L. (2012). The appraisal of middle level leaders in New Zealand secondary schools (Master of Educational Leadership and Management)
Gregory, Christopher Robert (2012). Data driven decision making processes for pedagogical purposes in the case of Latin and South American bi-lingual international schools (Master of Educational Leadership and Management)
Peak, Rachel (2010). Middle leadership of teams in large New Zealand secondary schools (Master of Educational Leadership and Management)
Kelso, Michael (2010). The impact of student feedback on secondary teachers (Master of Educational Leadership and Management)
Cowie, Debbie (2010). Coaching for improving teacher practice within a professional development initiative (Master of Educational Leadership and Management)
Ogram, Margaret (2009). The expectation and the reality: The challenges for primary principals in leading learning (Master of Educational Leadership and Management)
Farnham, Adrian (2009). A portrait of the deputy principal in the New Zealand secondary school (Master of Educational Leadership and Management)
Wilson, Robert (2009). Characteristics for principal employment: A Board of Trustee chair perspective (Master of Educational Leadership and Management)
Stockton, Matthew (2009). Meeting the demands of a new curriculum philosophy: A study of the challenges of curriculum implementation for small rural schools in New Zealand (Master of Educational Leadership and Management)
Harray, Neil (2009). The challenge of strategic management and strategic leadership in the case of three New Zealand secondary schools (Master of Educational Leadership and Management)
Auva'a, Enosa (2008). Aspiring towards principalship: A Pacific Island perspective (Master of Educational Leadership and Management)
Zhang, Han (2008). Investigating the evaluation performance of an educational programme conducted in Yunnan Province China (Master of Education)
Ingham, Sue (2008). Turning the tables: Students mentoring teachers in ICT professional development (Master of Educational Leadership and Management)
Chetty, Pamela (2007). The role and professional development needs of middle managers in New Zealand secondary schools (Master of Educational Management)
Liao, Tiffany (2007). Chinese immigrant children's first year of schooling: An investigation of Chinese immigrant parents' perspectives (Master of Education)
Munro-Keene, Judy (2006). Look who's talking? NCEA and learning partnerships: A case study of a lesson (Master of Educational Management)

Masters theses or dissertations supervised by Carol Cardno as Associate Supervisor

Sipasirth, Oud (2015). Leadership development of curriculum leaders in a Lao higher education Institution (Master of Educational Leadership and Management)
Wright, Martin (2015). Secondary teacher experiences of professional development : a focus on sustained application to practice (Master of Educational Leadership and Management)
Kemp, Aaron (2015). Expectations and reality : primary school principals' experiences of change leadership in the transition to digital learning environments (Master of Educational Leadership and Management)
Long, Nilroath (2015). Leadership development needs of Cambodian primary school principals and deputy principals (Master of Educational Leadership and Management)
Mahavong, Anongsack (2014). Leadership development for middle leaders in a Lao tertiary institution (Master of Educational Leadership and Management)
Anderson, Adele (2013). Relationship strategies that support the achievement of school-wide goals : case studies of two secondary schools (Master of Educational Leadership and Management)
Taylor, Saul McKay (2012). Setting suns and rising stars : succession planning in New Zealand's deaf education leadership workforce : a national study (Master of Educational Leadership and Management)
Biggs, Karene (2010). The induction of overseas trained teachers in South Auckland secondary schools (Master of Educational Leadership and Management)
Peppiatt, Asha (2007). School prospectuses: Why do New Zealand schools produce one? (Master of Educational Management)

Publications

Howse, J., Tolmie, E., & Cardno, C. (2017). Moving from the past into the future with new spaces and new pedagogies. Australian Council for Educational Leadership, Sydney.

Bassett, M., Robson, J., Cardno, C., Deo, A., & Howse, J. (2017). Middle-level leaders as instructional leaders in Aotearoa New Zealand schools: Emerging data of role expectations and performance confidence. New Zealand Association for Research (NZARE) Conference, Hamilton.

Cardno, C., Tolmie, E., & Howse, J. (2017). New spaces - new pedagogies: Implementing personalised learning in primary school innovative learning environments. Journal of Educational Leadership, Policy and Practice (Vol. 32(1)).

Cardno, C., Bassett, M., & Wood, C. (2017). A tale of two secondary schools' efforts to embed 'teaching as inquiry' within an appraisal system. Leading & Managing (Vol. 23(1)).

Cardno, C., Handjani, M., & Howse, J. (2017). Leadership practices and challenges in managing diversity to achieve ethnic inclusion in two New Zealand secondary schools. New Zealand Journal of Educational Studies (Vol. 52(2)).

Cardno, C., & Tetzlaff, K. (2017). Tracing the stages of senior leadership team development in New Zealand primary schools: Insights and issues. Malaysian Online Journal of Educational Management (Vol. 5(3)).
http://hdl.handle.net/10652/4008

Cardno, C., Rosales-Anderson, N., & McDonald, M. (2017). Documentary analysis hui: An emergent bricolage method for culturally responsive qualitative research. MAI Journal (Vol. 6(2)).
http://hdl.handle.net/10652/4147

Cardno, C., Bassett, M., & Wood, C. (2016). Teaching as inquiry in an appraisal context. SET Research for Teachers (Vol. 2).

Cardno, C., & Robson, J. (2016). Realising the value of performance appraisal for middle leaders in New Zealand secondary schools. Research in Educational Administration & Leadership (Vol. 1(2)).

Cardno, C., Anderson, N., & McDonald, M. (2016). Documentary analysis hui: an innovative research method employed to bring documents to life through culturally responsive conversation. Australian Association for Research in Education Conference, Melbourne.
http://hdl.handle.net/10652/3743

Youngs, H., & Cardno, C. (2016). Features of effective leadership development provision for experienced New Zealand principals. International Studies in Educational Administration (Vol. 43(1)).
http://hdl.handle.net/10652/3593

Bassett, M., & Cardno, C. (2015). Developing middle-level leaders in New Zealand secondary schools: A diversity of perspectives. New Zealand Association for Research in Education, Whakatane.

Cardno, C. (2015). Managing Difficult Conversations. Inspired Leadership Programme, Christchurch.
http://hdl.handle.net/10652/3305

Cardno, C., & Bassett, M. (2015). Multiple perspectives of leadership development for middle-level pedagogical leaders in New Zealand secondary schools. Journal of Educational Leadership Policy and Practice (Vol. 30(2)).

Cardno, C. (2014). The functions, attributes and challenges of academic leadership in New Zealand polytechnics. International Journal of Educational Management (Vol. 28,4).

Cardno, C. (2014). Effective performance appraisal: Asking the right questions. Tertiary Education Management Conference: Rainforest to Reef - Adapting to a changing environment, Auckland, New Zealand.
http://hdl.handle.net/10652/3039

Cardno, C. (2014). The functions, attributes and challenges of academic leadership in New Zealand polytechnics. Australian Association for Research in Education and New Zealand Association for Research in Education joint conference, Brisbane, Australia.

Cardno, C., & Youngs, H. (2013). Leadership development for experienced New Zealand principals: Perceptions of effectiveness. Educational Management Administration & Leadership, doi: 10.1177/1741143212474808 (Vol. 41(3)).
http://hdl.handle.net/10652/2603

Cardno, C. (2013). Interventions that build resilient relationships: Learning skills for productive conversations. Presentation at Association for Tertiary Management Regional Conference: Triumph or Tragedy - Building Resilience in the Tertiary Sector, July 4-5, Wellington, New Zealand.
http://hdl.handle.net/10652/2817

Cardno, C. (2013). Images of academic leadership in New Zealand Institutes of Technology / Polytechnics. Unitec Institute of Technology Research Symposium, Auckland.

Cardno, C. (2013). Images of academic leadership in large New Zealand polytechnics. Journal of Higher Education Policy and Management, doi: 10.1080/1360080x.2013.775922 (Vol. 35(2)).
http://hdl.handle.net/10652/2602

Cardno, C. (2012). Managing effective relationships in education. London: Sage.

Cardno, C., and Allen, L. (2012). Book Review: Realizing the power of professional learning by Helen Timperley. New Zealand Journal of Educational Studies (Vol. 47(1)).

Cardno , C., and Allen, L. (2012). Realizing the power of professional learning, Helen Timperley, Maidenhead, Berkshire, Open University Press, 2011, 196 pages. New Zealand Journal of Education Studies (Vol. 47,1).

Cardno, C. (2012). Dilemmas in performance coaching and the value of productive conversations. Australian Council for Educational Leadership Conference: An Inquiry Mindset.

Cardno, C. (2012). Images of academic leadership in higher education: An unfolding picture. Bethlehem, NZ, Thursday 12 April, 2012.

Cardno, C. (2011). The shape of academic leadership in higher education: emerging patterns and paradoxes. Higher Education Research and Development Society of Australasia conference: Higher Education on the Edge, Gold Coast Australia.

Cardno, C., and Youngs, H. (2011). Perceptions of effective leadership development for experienced principals. Australian Association for Research in Education Conference, Hobart, November.

Cardno, C. (2011). Acting on issues for Pasifika aspiring principals in New Zealand primary schools. Hawaii International Conference on Education, Honolulu.

Cardno, C. (2010). Focusing educational leadership on creating learning conditions that sustain productive relationships: The case of a New Zealand primary school. Leading & Managing (Vol. 16(1)).

Cardno, C., and Auva'a, E. (2010). A study of Pacific Island senior managers as aspiring principals in New Zealand primary schools. International Studies in Educational Administration (Vol. 38(2)).

Cardno, C. (2010). Sustaining change through leadership that promotes productive conversations: A case study. International Conference of the New Zealand Educational Administration and Leadership Society, Christchurch.

Cardno, C. (2010). Recording and reporting action research. University of Waikato, Hamilton, Waikato Action Research Network.

Cardno, C. (2010). Sustaining change through leadership that promotes productive conversations. Hawaii International Education Conference, Honolulu, 7-10 January.

Cardno, C. (2010). Developing leadership ability: Does mission match momentum. New Zealand Association for Research in Education Conference (Breakfast meeting Keynote for New Zealand Educational Administration and Leadership Society), Auckland.

Youngs, H., Cardno, C., Collins, J., Howse, J., Harvie, L., and Bush, T. (2010). Evaluation Report: Experienced Principal Development Programme. Report to the Ministry of Education, Wellington, New Zealand.

Cardno, C., and Reynolds, B. (2009). Resolving dilemmas in New Zealand kindergartens: An action research study. Journal of Educational Administration (Vol. 47 2).

Wildy, H., Clarke, S., and Cardno, C. (2009). Antipodean perspectives on enhancing the quality of school leadership: Views from Australia and New Zealand. Wiseman, A. Educational Leadership: Global contexts and international comparisons.

Auva'a, E., and Cardno, C. (2009). Leadership development for aspiring Pasifika principals. Australian Council for Educational Leadership and American Supervision and Cirriculum Development International Conference: Tipping Points, Corrageous Stories.

Cardno, C. (2009). Action research in early childhood settings: Balancing research and professional development goals. Hawaii International Conference on Education.

Cardno, C. (2009). Leading change by building productive relationships. Australian Council for Educational Leadership and American Supervision and Cirriculum Development International Conference: Tipping Points, Corrageous Stories.

Cardno, C. (2009). Kindergartens, dilemmas and action research: A recipe for leadership learning. New Zealand Educaitonal Administration Leadership Society, Auckland Branch Network Meeting.

Reynolds, B., and Cardno, C. (2008). Leadership dilemmas in New Zealand early childhood and care centres. Journal of Educational Leadership, Policy and Practice. (Vol. 23 1).

Cardno, C. (2008). Changing the conversational climate for educational leadership in schools. Australian Association for Research in Education International Education Research Conference.

Cardno, C. (2008). Organisational learning: A critical factor in educational leaders' attempts to solve problems of practice. Perspectives on Educational Leadership (Vol. 6).

Cardno, C. (2008). Managing dilemmas: The key to interpersonal effectiveness. What Matters Most: School Leaders' Symposium.

Cardno, C. (2008). Educational leadership that matters: Acting on theory to increase indirect effects of organisational learning on student outcomes. International Conference of the New Zealand Educational Leadership and Administration Society.

Cardno, C., and Marat, D. (2008). High hopes and harsh realities: Practitioners' reflections on conducting action research beyond a formal study programme. Piggot-Irvine, E., and Bartlett, B. Evaluating Action Research.

Cardno, C., and Billington, S. (2008). Using Action Research to sustain school improvement. ICSEI Conference 2008 (International Congress for School Effectiveness and Improvement).

Cardno, C., and Reynolds, B. (2008). Leadership dilemmas: A kindergarten perspective. 2008 NZEALS International Educational Leadership Conference.

Cardno, C., and Reynolds, B. (2008). Leadership dilemmas: A kindergarten perspective. International Conference of the New Zealand Educational Leadership and Administration Society.

Cardno, C. (2008). Action research in early childhood centres: Balancing research and professional development goals. New Zealand Research in Early Childhood Education (Vol. 11).

Youngs, H., Cardno, C., Smith, A., and France, C. (2007). Governance leadership in New Zealand schools: The perceptions of board chairs in relation to their role and development. Leading and Managing (Vol. 13 1).

Haynes, M., Cardno, C., and Craw, J. (2007). Enhancing mathematics teaching and learning in early childhood settings. the Teaching and Learning Research Initiative, New Zealand Council for Educational Research.

Cardno, C. (2007). Professional school leadership - dealing with dilemmas. Murphy, D. Journal of Educational Administration and History (Vol. 39 3).

Cardno, C. (2007). Managing leadership dilemmas: getting to the heart of interpersonal effectiveness Keynote. Queensland Professional Development Network 11th School Leaders' Conference.

Cardno, C. (2007). Team learning: A question of quality feedback Workshop. Queensland Professional Development Network 11th School Leaders' Conference.

Cardno, C. (2007). Leadership learning: The praxis of dilemma management. International Studies in Educational Administration (Vol. 35 2).

Reynolds, B., and Cardno, C. (2007). Discovering leadership dilemmas: An early childhood education and care perspective. New Zealand Early Childhood Convention 2007 'Pakiwaitara: Stories of the land'.

Reynolds, B., and Cardno, C. (2007). Leadership dilemmas in early childhood care and education centres. Annual Australian Research in Early Childhood Conference.

Cardno, C. (2006). Leading change: Managing collaboration in early childhood settings. Auckland Kindergarten Association Head Teacher Seminar.
http://hdl.handle.net/10652/1296

Cardno, C. (2006). Managing positive international relationships at the senior management level. Auckland Associate/Deputy Principals' Association Conference.
http://hdl.handle.net/10652/1292

Cardno, C. (2006). Leading change: Managing collaboration effectively. New Zealand First Time Principals Programme.
http://hdl.handle.net/10652/1293

Cardno, C. (2006). Professional development: A critical concern for school leaders. Education Management Association of South Africa 9th International Conference 'Ubuntu: People in Education Management', Bela Bela, South Africa.
http://hdl.handle.net/10652/1295

Cardno, C. (2006). Leading change from within: Action research to strengthen curriculum leadership in a primary school. School Leadership and Management (Vol. 26(5)).
http://hdl.handle.net/10652/1327

Cardno, C. (2006). Leadership learning: The praxis of dilemma management. Proceedings: CCEAM - Recreating linkages between theory and practice in educational leadershipCommonwealth Council for Educational Administration and Management Conference (Vol. CD Rom).
http://hdl.handle.net/10652/1294

Cardno, C. (2003-2009). Member of International Editorial Board. Educational Management Administration and Leadership.

Cardno, C. (2002-2009). Member of Editorial Advisory Board. Journal of Educational Administration.

Cardno, C. (2003-2007). Member of International Editorial Board. Educational Management Administration and Leadership.

Cardno, C. (2002-2007). Member of Editorial Advisory Board. Journal of Educational Administration.

Cardno, C., Smith, A., Youngs, H., & France, C. (2005). Board chairs' perceptions of their role: Towards a national picture. Presented to the New Zealand School Trustees Association Conference 'Celebration of governance-where all kids achieve', 30 June-3 July, Auckland.

Cardno, C., & Howse, J. (2005). Pacific island principal development: An enterprise in fostering effective leadership and management. Presented to the American Educational Research Association 2005 Conference 'Demography and democracy in the era of accountability', 11-15 April, Montreal.

Cardno, C., & Howse, J. (2005). The role and management development needs of secondary principals in Tonga and the Fiji islands. International Studies in Educational Administration, 33 (3), 35-46.

Cardno, C., Haynes, M., & Craw, J. (2005). Making mathematics central to teaching and learning in early childhood. Presented to the 9th Annual Early Childhood Research Symposium 'Childforum', 5 December, Dunedin.

Cardno, C., France, C., Smith, A., & Youngs, H. (2005). A national picture of how Board Chairs' perceive their role - implications for support and development. Presented to the New Zealand School Trustees Association Conference 'Celebration of governance-where all kids achieve', 2 July, Auckland.

Cardno, C., & Fitzgerald, T. (2005). Leadership learning: A development initiative for experienced New Zealand principals. Journal of Educational Administration, 43 (3), 316-329.

Cardno, C. (2005). Working together effectively: Collaborative practice in your school. Presented to the First Time Principals' Conference, 20 July, Christchurch.

Cardno, C. (2005). Managing dilemmas: The key to interpersonal effectiveness (keynote address). Presented to the Royal Society of New Zealand School Managers' Symposium 'From good to great', 27-28 April, Hamilton.

Cardno, C. (2005). Management development in educational organisations. Presented to the National Staff Developers' Conference, 29 September, Auckland.

Cardno, C. (2005). Leading change from within: Action research to strengthen curriculum leadership in a primary school. Presented to the Australian Council for Educational Leaders National Conference 'New waves of leadership', 21-23 September, Goldcoast, Queensland.

Cardno, C. (2005). Leadership and professional development: The quiet revolution. International Journal of Educational Management, 19 (4), 292-306.

Piggot-Irvine, E., & Cardno, C. (2005). Appraising performance productively: Integrating accountability and development. Auckland: Eversleigh Publishing.

Cardno, C., & Collett, D. (2004). Curriculum leadership: Secondary school principal's perspective on this challenging role in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Educational Leadership, 19 (2), 15-29.

Cardno, C. (2004). Action research: An investment in informed and effective change. Presented to the Secondary Principals' Association of New Zealand Annual Conference, 20 May, Rotorua, New Zealand.

Cardno, C. (2004). Images of professional leadership in secondary schools: A Pacific perspective. Presented to the British Educational Leadership, Management and Administration Society Conference 2004, 8-10 October, Stone, UK.

Cardno, C. (2004). Practitioner research: Embracing epistemological diversity and celebrating pluralism in school-based educational management action research. Presented to the Commonwealth Council for Educational Administration and Management Conference, 20-22 October, Hong Kong.

Cardno, C. (2004). Leadership and professional development: The quiet revolution. Presented to the Third International Conference on Educational Leadership: Leadership: Evolution or revolution, 20-21 February, Wollongong, Australia.

Cardno, C., & Collett, D. (2003). Secondary school principals as curriculum leaders: A New Zealand study. Paper presented at the New Zealand Association for Research in Education/Australian Association for Research in Education Conference, 29 November - 3 December, Auckland, New Zealand. http://www.aare.edu.au/indexpap.htm

Cardno, C. (2003). Emerging issues in formalising principal preparation in New Zealand. International Electronic Journal for Leadership in Learning, 17 (7), 19 p.c. http://www.ucalgary.ca/iejll/volume7/cardno.htm

Cardno, C. (2003). Action research: A developmental approach. Wellington: New Zealand Council for Educational Research.

Cardno, C. (2002). The management and development of educational professionals. Presented to the Central Districts AP/ DP Conference, 2 August, New Plymouth.

Cardno, C. (2002). Formalising pre-employment principal preparation in New Zealand: Emerging issues. In J. Robertson (Ed.), Partnership, Participation and Protection of What's Important (pp. 40-54). Hamilton: NZEAS. Paper presented at the New Zealand Educational Administration Society, January, Rotorua.

Cardno, C. (2002). Team learning: Opportunities and challenges for school leaders. School Leadership and Management, 22 (2), 211-223.

Cardno, C. (2001). Managing Dilemmas in Appraising Performance: An Approach for School Leaders. In D. Middlewood & C. Cardno (Eds.), Managing Teacher Appraisal and Performance: A Comparative Approach (pp. 143-159). London: Routledge Farmer.

Cardno, C. (2001). Giving and Receiving Effective Feedback. Presented to the National Association of Secondary Deputy and Associate Princiapals' Conference, 2 August, Auckland.

Cardno, C. (2001). The Practice of Leadership in Managing Dilemmas. Presented to the Hibiscus Coast Principals' Forum, 29 August, Whangaparoa.

Cardno, C. (2001). The Strategic Management of Schools: Expectations and Challenges for Principals. Secondary Principals' Association of New Zealand Journal, 9-13. April.

Middlewood, D., & Cardno, C. (2001). The Significance of Teacher Performance and its Appraisal. In D. Middlewood & C. Cardno (Eds.), Managing Teacher Appraisal and Performance: A Comparative Approach (pp. 1-16). London: Routledge Falmer.

Middlewood, D., & Cardno, C. (Eds.) (2001). Managing Teacher Appraisal and Performance: A Comparative Approach. London: Routledge Falmer.

Cardno, C. (2000). The Preparation of School Principals. Presented to the Auckland Secondary Deputy and Assistant Principals' Association, 30 August, Auckland.

Cardno, C. (2000). Management Development for Career Professionals. Presented to the National Conference on Careers and Transition Education, 24 November, Auckland.

Cardno, C. (2000). Dilemma Management. Presented to the Eden/Albert Principals Group, 31 August, Auckland.

Cardno, C., & Clinton, J. (2000). Programme Evaluation and Initiative Management. Presented to the American Evaluation Association, 4 November, Honolulu, Hawaii.

Hansen, J. J., Cardno, C., & Marat, D. (2000). Towards a Subsumptive Theory of Distance Education: The Case of Providing Flexible Postgraduate Research Supervision for Distance Learners, Supporting the Learner Through Open, Flexible and Distance Strategies: Issues for Pacific Rim Countries (pp. 141-165). Dunedin: The Distance Education Association of New Zealand Inc. Paper presented at the DEANZ 2000 Conference, 27-29 April, Dunedin.

Cardno, C. (1999). The Potential of Teams in Learning Organisations. In C. Cardno, T. Curtis, J. Howse, O. Kelly, R. MacPherson, L. McLeod, M. Neville, & B. Williams (Eds.), Cultural Nation-building for New Zealand (He Kaupapa Whakamana Tangata mo Aotearoa) (pp. 95-103). Auckland: New Zealand Educational Administration Society. Paper presented at the New Zealand Educational Administration Society (NZEAS) Research Conference, 22-24 January, Auckland.

Cardno, C. (1999). School Self-review: The Case of a Secondary School Senior Mangement Team. Leading & Managing, 5 (1), 9-25.

Cardno, C. (1999). Images of Effectiveness: Professional Development for Responsive Educational Leaders. Presented to the 'Planning for the Future in Playcentre' New Zealand Playcentre Federation Conference, June, Rotorua.

Cardno, C. (1999). Appraisal Policy and Implementation Issues for New Zealand Schools. The International Journal of Educational Management, 13 (2), 87-97.

Cardno, C. (1999). Taking the Team by the Tail: An Examination of the Potency and Demands of Team Contribution to an Organisational Learning Culture, Global Issues and Local Effects: The Challenge for Educational Research . Paper presented at the Australian Association for Research in Education & New Zealand Association for Research in Education, 29 November - 2 December, Melbourne, Australia. http://www.swin.edu.au/aare/

Cardno, C. (1998). Performance Appraisal in Schools: National Policy Directives and Implementation Issues for Principals. Presented to the Educational Planning and Implementation - Commonwealth Council for Educational Management and Administration International Intervisitation Programme, Barbados.

Cardno, C. (1998). School Self-review: the Case of a Secondary School Senior Management Team. Presented to the New Zealand Association for Educational Research Conference, Dunedin.

Cardno, C. (1998). Appraisal: David Middlewood in Conversation with Carol Cardno. Good Teacher (October), 5.

Cardno, C. (1998). Leadership Styles: Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow. Presented to the Leadership Styles - The University of Auckland Principal's Centre Seminar, Auckland.

Cardno, C. (1998). Effective Workplace Cultures - The Tension Between Consulting and Workload. Presented to the Managing Human Resources - The University of Auckland Principal's Centre Seminar, Auckland.

Cardno, C. (1998). Teams in New Zealand Schools. Leading and Managing, 4 (1), 47-60.

Cardno, C. (1998). Making a Difference by Managing Dilemmas. SET - Research Information for Teachers, 1 (13), 1-4.

Cardno, C. (1998). Working Together: Managing Strategy Collaboratively. In D. Middlewood & J. Lumby (Eds.), Strategic Management in Schools and College (pp. 105-119). London: Paul Chapman.